# Chapter 2 Formulas

In the example in the previous chapter we introduced a lot of variables and formulas. In this chapter, we will have a closer look at what one can do with formulas.

## Substituting Formulas:

Beatrice sometimes mixes up how big the different wheels are. Therefore, she decides to substitute the variables for the front and back wheel for variables whose name includes their size.

She replaces:

• wf1wf24
• wf2wf26
• wf3wf27 for the front wheel of size 27.5 inch
• wf4wf29
• wf5wf32

and

• wb1wb24
• wb2wb26
• wb3wb27 for the back wheel of size 27.5 inch
• wb4wb29
• wb5wb32

Beatrice substitutes the variables in the following way (c.f. the function substituteLiterals in the Tutorial):

final Substitution substitution = new Substitution();

final List<Formula> substituted = data.formulas.stream()
.map(formula -> formula.substitute(substitution))
.collect(Collectors.toList());

The result is the rule set in terms of the new variables:

frame <=> f1 | f2 | f3, f1 + f2 + f3 = 1
handlebar <=> h1 | h2 | h3 | h4 | h5
h1 + h2 + h3 + h4 + h5 = 1
saddle <=> s1 | s2 | s3 | s4
s1 + s2 + s3 + s4 = 1
frontWheel <=> wf24 | wf26 | wf27 | wf29 | wf32
wf24 + wf26 + wf27 + wf29 + wf32 = 1
backWheel <=> wb24 | wb26 | wb27 | wb29 | wb32
wb24 + wb26 + wb27 + wb29 + wb32 = 1
bell <=> b1 | b2 | b3
b1 + b2 + b3 <= 1
luggageRack <=> r1 | r2 | r3 | r4
r1 + r2 + r3 + r4 <= 1
color <=> c1 | c2 | c3 | c4
c1 + c2 + c3 + c4 = 1
f1 => ~s1 & ~h3
f1 => ~luggageRack | r4
f3 => ~h5
h5 => ~bell
r4 => ~b2 | f2 | f3
wf24 <=> wb24
wf26 <=> wb26
wf27 <=> wb27
wf29 <=> wb29
wf32 <=> wb32
frame => wf26 | wf27 | wf29 | wf32
wf32 => f3

## Restricting Formulas:

Due to a global pandemic, there are issues with the supply chain. Beatrice's supplier of trust Super Supplier cannot deliver a couple of components: Back wheel 24-inch wb24 and color c3 are out of stock. However, Super Supplier delivered a lot of the minimalistic luggage racks r4.

How can she still configure valid bikes with the given restrictions? She decides that all bikes from now on

• may not have the back wheel wb24 or color c3
• must have the minimalistic luggage rack r4, since her little storage space will otherwise be cram-full within a couple of days.

Beatrice restricts the set of rules in the following way:

• wb24 and c3 are not allowed (set to false)
• r4 must be contained (set to true).

See the function restrictRuleset in the tutorial code, how to do this:

final Assignment assignment = new Assignment();

final List<Formula> restricted = formulas.stream()
.map(formula -> formula.restrict(assignment))
.collect(Collectors.toList());
1. cheap color sold out

The result is the following rule set:

frame <=> f1 | f2 | f3
f1 + f2 + f3 = 1
handlebar <=> h1 | h2 | h3 | h4 | h5
h1 + h2 + h3 + h4 + h5 = 1
saddle <=> s1 | s2 | s3 | s4
s1 + s2 + s3 + s4 = 1
frontWheel <=> wf24 | wf26 | wf27 | wf29 | wf32
wf24 + wf26 + wf27 + wf29 + wf32 = 1
backWheel <=> wb26 | wb27 | wb29 | wb32
wb26 + wb27 + wb29 + wb32 = 1
bell <=> b1 | b2 | b3
b1 + b2 + b3 <= 1
luggageRack
r1 + r2 + r3 <= 0
color <=> c1 | c2 | c4
c1 + c2 + c4 = 1
f1 => ~s1 & ~h3
$true f3 => ~h5 h5 => ~bell ~b2 | f2 | f3 ~wf24 wf26 <=> wb26 wf27 <=> wb27 wf29 <=> wb29 wf32 <=> wb32 frame => wf26 | wf27 | wf29 | wf32 wf32 => f3 The following rules have changed: Rule Restricted Rule Explanation luggageRack <=> r1 | r2 | r3 | r4 luggageRack since r4 is chosen, a luggage rack is taken r1 + r2 + r3 + r4 <= 1 r1 + r2 + r3 <= 0 since r4 is chosen, none of r1, r2 and r3 may be chosen too color <=> c1 | c2 | c3 | c4 color <=> c1 | c2 | c4 ~c3 is a restriction c1 + c2 + c3 + c4 = 1 c1 + c2 + c4 = 1 ~c3 is a restriction f1 => ~luggageRack | r4$true the right hand side is always true, since r4 is chosen
r4 => ~b2 | f2 | f3 ~b2 | f2 | f3 the left hand side is satisfied, thus the right hand part has to hold
wf24 <=> wb24 ~wf24 ~wb24 is a restriction

Two remarks: 1. When a formula restricts to $true this means it is always fullfilled and therefore can be ommitted. If a formula would restrict to$false the whole rule set would be contradictionary. 2. The restricted second rule r1 + r2 + r3 <= 0 is equivalent to ~r1 & ~r2 & ~r3.

Beatrice translates the changes of the rule set for the next customer. The updated rules are the following:

• you must choose the luggage rack r4 and may not choose any of r1, r2, r3
• you must take exactly one of the colors c1, c2, c4
• either you do not take the bike bell b2 or you take frame 2 f2 or you take f3
• you may not take front wheel with 24-inch wf24

More information about substituting and restricting formulas can be found in the relevant section in the documentation.